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Technische Universität München> Technische Universität MünchenHelmholtz-Zentrum Hereon> Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon
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MLZ (eng)

85748 Garching


Thermal three axes spectrometer

Insrumentscheme PUMA Insrumentscheme PUMA

Three axes spectrometers allow the direct measurement of the scattering function S(Q, ω) in single crystals at well defined points of the reciprocal lattice vector Q and frequency ω and thus represent the most general instrument type.

PUMA is characterised by a very high neutron flux as a result of the efficient use of focussing techniques. Three different vertical openings and a horizontal slit with a maximum opening of 40 mm define the virtual source, which is two meters before the monochromator. To reduce the primary beam’s contamination by epithermal neutrons, a sapphire filter can be placed in front of the monochromator. PUMA has a remote controlled monochromator changing unit which allows to place one out of four different monochromators inside the drum. All of them are equipped with double focussing devices that allow for optimum focussing conditions over a wide range of incident wavevectors ki. The horizontal divergency of the beam can be defined using a series of four Soller collimators. The two inside the drum, before and after the monochromator, can be remotely changed, whereas the two in the analyser housing can be changed manually. An Eulerian cradle can optionally be used to access the four dimensional Q-ω-space.

An innovative option of the spectrometer is the multianalyer/ detector system. It allows a unique and flexible type of multiplexing. Using this option a scattering angle range of 16° can be measured simultaneously and flexible Q-ω paths can be realised without repositioning the instrument. Mapping of excitations is equally well possible as kinetic single shot experiments on time scales that have not been accessible so far.

A unique feature of the instrument is the possibility to perform stroboscopic, time resolved measurements of both elastic and inelastic signals on time scales down to the microsecond regime. Using this technique, the sample is periodically perturbed by an external variable such as temperature, electric field, etc. The signal is then recorded not only as a function of momentum and energy transfer, but also given a time stamp, relative to the periodic perturbation.

Typical Applications
  • Electron-phonon interaction
  • Phonon anharmocities
  • Soft mode phase transitions
  • Spin waves in (anti)ferromagnets
  • Electron-magnon interaction
  • Unconventional superconductors
  • Crystal fields
Time resolved/ stroboscopic measurements
  • Temperature cycling (excitations during demixing processes)
  • Electrical field cycling (polarisation processes in ferroelectrics)
  • Temperature/ pressure cycling
Diffraction; purely elastic signals
  • Superstructures/ satellites
  • Diffuse scattering
Sample Environment
Besides standard sample environment, we provide:
  • Closed-cycle cryostates 3.5 – 300 K;
    • – 650 K with adaptable heating device
  • Cryofurnace 5 K – 750 K
  • Paris-Edinburgh type pressure cell p < 10 GPa
Along with the detector electronics required for time resolved measurements, special sample environment for the rapid cycling is available:
  • Furnace for fast temperature jumps (~ 5 K/s cooling rate; < 620 K; ambient atmosphere)
  • Switchable HV power supply (< 500 Hz; +/- 10 KV)
Technical Data
Primary beam
  • Beam tube SR-7 (thermal)
  • Beam tube entrance: 140 × 90 mm2
  • Virtual source dimensions:
    • horizontal: 0 – 40 mm
    • vertical: (90, 110, 130 mm)
  • Beam tube entrance – monochromator: 5.5 m
  • Virtual source – monochromator: 2.0 m
  • Monochromator – sample: 2.0 (± 0.1) m
  • Sample – analyser: 1.0 (± 0.1) m
  • Analyser – detector: 0.9 m
  • Remote controlled:
    • α1: 20’, 40’, 60’
    • α2: 14’, 20’, 24’, 30’, 45’, 60’
  • Manually changeable:
    • α3: 10’, 20’, 30’, 45’, 60’
    • α4: 10’, 30’, 45’, 60’
  • Crystals: PG(002), Cu(220), Cu(111), Ge(311) size: 260 × 162 mm2;
  • Focus vertically and horizontally adaptable to incident energy
  • Crystals : PG(002), Ge(311); 210 × 150 mm²
    • vertical fixed focus
    • horizontally adaptable to incident energy
Sample table
  • Diameter 800 mm
  • Max. load 900 kg
  • Amagnetic goniometer (± 15°)
  • Z translation (± 20 mm)
  • Optional Eulerian cradle
Main parameters
  • Monochromator take-off angle: -15° < 2Θ < -115°
  • Scattering angle sample: -70° < 2Θ <120° (dependent on monochromator take-off angle)
  • Analyser scattering angle: -120°< 2Θ < 120°
  • Incident energy range: 5 meV – 160 meV
  • Momentum transfer range: < 12 Å-1
  • Energy transfer: < 100 meV

Instrument Scientists

Dr. Jitae T. Park
Phone: +49 (0)89 289-13983

Dr. Avishek Maity
Phone: +49 (0)89 289-54835

Dr. Alsu Gazizulina
Phone: +49 (0)89 289-54872

Phone: +49 (0)89 289-14914

Cooperation team

Dr. Frank Weber
Institut für QuantenMaterialien und Technologien (IQMT)
Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie (KIT)
Telefon: +49 (0)721 608 23981

Operated by





Successful ErUM-Pro proposals

Successful ErUM-Pro proposals

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KIT joins PUMA

KIT joins PUMA

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Find the latest publications regarding PUMA in our publication database iMPULSE:

Citation of the instrument

Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum. (2015).PUMA: Thermal three axes spectrometer. Journal of large-scale research facilities, 1, A13.

For citation please always include the DOI.



MLZ is a cooperation between:

Technische Universität München> Technische Universität MünchenHelmholtz-Zentrum Hereon> Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon
Forschungszentrum Jülich> Forschungszentrum Jülich

MLZ is a member of:


MLZ on social media: